Firescale/Firestain Questions

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Question:  What does firescale look like?


How does fire scale present on a polished piece of silver jewelry?


Please see updated information on firescale and fire stain on my webpage:  Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention.  Updated:  1/27/17.

firescale (firescale/stain on silver)  I think this link to my page: Soldering 101,  will help. Firescale/fire-stain usually shows up (clearly) when polished.  It looks like a purple bruise.

Question on Oxidation, Firescale and Oxygen Concentrators


“I’m producing a lot of fire scale. My studio is in my house, so I’m reluctant to set up acetylene. Is there a larger oxy/propane torch you might suggest? I’m thinking of getting an oxygen machine to eliminate buying those expensive oxygen bottles from the hardware store.”


Is it firescale or is it oxidation, that you are experiencing?  Here’s my page on the topic.  If it is oxidation, moving to the mapp gas and getting a larger torch tip could help.  Maybe, it is taking too long to heat your metal. When you fire metal too long it allows for considerable oxidation to develop – especially with sterling and base metals like brass, bronze and copper.  A larger torch tip, like this #7 , the Melting Tip or the Twin Tip (you can solder from both sides at the same time),  should help heat things up faster.  Have you checked out Argentium silver?  Very awesome metal.  It contains Germanium, which is released when the metal is heated.  The Germanium coats the outside of the metal, reducing, drastically, the firescale and oxidation.  It also takes a long time for it to tarnish – although, rates vary depending on what chemicals are present in the environment.  Please see my webpage on sheet metal and wire.

If you are getting a lot of firescale, look into reducing your heat, completely coating your metal with flux or an anti-scale product, or don’t finish to a high shine (see soldering 101 page for explanation).  You can also switch to Argentium.  More information on firescale can be found at my Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention page.  You can try a product like this: FirescoffTM.

Here’s a brief discourse on Scott’s experience with an oxygen concentrator, at Ganoksin.

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Question: My ring has firescale, how can I remove it?

“I’m trying to solder a gold filled ring, and I have bought the Firescoff. I have already followed the instructions step by step, but still can’t solder a perfect gold filled ring, it still has the firescale. Could you please tell me how to do with this?”


Firescale and Surface Oxidation both occur in metals containing copper like your gold filled metal as well as sterling silver, brass and bronze – among others.

Both Firescale and Surface Oxidation look like the tarnish that forms on sterling silver although, oxidation usually has other colors in it too like: browns and reds.
Surface Oxidation disappears after it is pickled (after soldering).  Did you pickle your piece after soldering?

The same is true of most firescale.  When the firescale does show up is usually during the final polishing stage and appears like a gray/purple bruise on the metal. (See my webpage: Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention for an explanation!)

This is Oxidation from soldering on sterling silver oxidation-on-sterling-silver and on 14k gold

filled  oxidation-on-gold-filled-14k.

Unfortunately, the only way that I’ve found to remove firescale/firestain (easily) is to sand it off.  It’s a bit more challenging with GF as you don’t want to sand off the plating. So, take it easy. I recommend buying the thickest GF you can find which, will allow for situations like firescale – especially when you will be soldering it. Update 1/27/17:  Please see this link on my site:  Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention for other methods to remove firescale/fire stain.
Here’s some information from Rio Grande on Gold Filled metal.  Here’s a video from them on soldering GF. Also, my page on Vermeil, Gold Plate and Gold Filled.
Following is an image of firescale/firestain on sterling silver:
Another method for avoiding firescale is to not overheat the piece.  The image above took me three tries and I almost melted the silver, trying to get the firescale to form.
So, I guess the first objective, for you is to determine whether you’ve got simple oxidation or firescale and then proceed with the solution(s).

Question and Answer:  How to remove firescale/stain.

You state you: leave too many “fire marks” – what do you mean by that?  Are you using pickle to clean the metal after soldering?  Or are you seeing that gray bruising after polishing (firescale)?  If you are seeing firescale, try doing something like what is in this Rio Grande article. If you have oxidation from soldering, try a nickel pickle:  Here’s one article from Hoover and Strong. Here’s a product – Rio Clean Pickle – designed for nickel, brass and bronze.

For getting into all the nooks and crannies, for further cleanup, try the 3m Radial Bristle Discs.  They work great!  To learn more about finishing please view my webpage: Finishing Jewelry and my video: How To Finish Jewelry.

Question: I have firescale/stain on my piece – how to remove it?


I’m a total newbie and also don’t have any equipment yet. I am taking a jewelry class.  I  just made 2 pieces and didn’t manage to polish the fire scale off before running out of time. What would you recommend to try to polish the fire scale away? It’s mostly around/under bronze stars that are soldered on to the sterling piece. It’s tricky to get at but very noticeable. Desperate to remove it!

I’d really like to try to achieve a mirror finish. Seems like sandpaper/finishing paper might be the way to go. My other thought is to take it to a local jeweler and see if they can do anything with it.  I’m attaching pictures of the pieces so you can see what I’m talking about. Recommendations of specific papers to buy would be really helpful.

Update: 1/27/17:

Please see my webpage:  Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention for updated information on the formation of firescale/fire stain and how to avoid and remove it.


Firescale/firestain is difficult to remove and the only predictable way to remove it, that I’ve found,  is with sanding or etching.  You could try using 50% sodium bisulfate based pickle and 50% hydrogen peroxide. One of my viewers swears that that works.  I need to experiment with it.  Check the metal every couple of minutes to see what’s happening.  You should see bubbling around any areas that contain copper. Usually, the metal will have a matt finish, after the immersion in pickle and peroxide so, you might have to burnish with a brass brush or use a buff with rouge.  It may work – it may not.

You can fold your sandpaper into shapes – which gives you a finer point to get into hard to reach areas and creates rigidity to help you sand. Roll or fold it into a point or wrap around a pencil, to get into those hard to reach areas (see images).  I use wet/dry sandpaper.  I buy it at my local hardware store or you can get it here, at Amazon.
sand-paper-cone Rolling sandpaper into a cone
sandpaper-and-support  Using support to wrap sandpaper around
sandpaper-folded  Folding sandpaper into a point
  I recommend working with the sandpaper wet as that: 1. keeps the dust down and 2. extends the life of the sandpaper because the particles get rinsed out and don’t build up and clog.
Another option is apply a patina, like liver of sulfur, to hide the stain.
If you have a dremel or a flex shaft you can use 3m bristle discs,  3M polishing pins or polishing points.
That is all that I know of for removing firescale.  You can try preventing it by using an anti-scale coating or Pripp’s flux or by not allowing the metal to get so hot – or both!
See the question above.
Update: 1/27/17:  
Please see my webpage:  Soldering 101 – Oxidation, Flux and Firescale Prevention for updated information on the formation of firescale/fire stain and how to avoid and remove it.

Question: Should I protect my piece from firescale/firestain with an anti-firescale coating when soldering?

Added 1/27/17

“Since you are the great and powerful guru of silversmithing, maybe you can help me.

Flux is used at the points you intend to solder to aid in its adhesion. When soldering, do I need to protect the piece from fire scale with a boric/alcohol bath first?
I just purchased Battern’s liquid flux and thought I was all set. Now I am receiving advice about the bath first. What are your thoughts? What brand flux do you use?”


Total immersion or coverage would only be important if you were concerned with fire scale/fire stain because you were creating a mirror finish, at the end.  According to the research, that I just completed, if you are working with sterling silver, bronze, brass or gold (besides 24K) you should either:  1. flux the entire piece or 2. use a fire scale preventative.  Check to be sure that the preventative can also be used as a flux.  See my updated information on oxidation, fire scale and fire stain.   

If oxidation is present in the metal, and it has been through several soldering/annealing steps, and you want a mirror finish, the heat from the buffing process will probably bring the copper molecules up to the surface in a random pattern.  It is explained more in the link above so, please check that out.

The reasoning behind total immersion is that the flux or preventative will reduce the amount of interaction between the 02 in the air and the metal, helping to reduce the quantity of oxidation and therefore, perhaps, reducing the chances for fire stain/fire scale to form on the entire piece.  Whereas, painting flux only at the join point only facilitates soldering and offers no protection to the rest of the metal.
Check the highest temperatures that your flux can survive at – fluxes are not all created equal.  Handy Flux is effective at 1,100°–1,600°F (593°–871°C). Caution:  Don’t purchase the wrong type of Handy Flux!  There is also a B-1 type for nickel silver and stainless steel. Battern’s Flux: 1100°F to 1700°F, (593°-927°C).  Grifflux: 1,100°–1,500°F (593°–816°C).  My-T-Flux, at Rio Grande, is effective from 1,100°-1,700°F (593°-927°C) – 200°F higher than the Grifflux.  Once you exceed the effective temperature range of the flux, it is no longer doing its job.  So, reducing heat helps to avoid stain/scale by allowing the flux to remain active.   Check your flux’s temperature ranges and try to keep your heat from exceeding them.
Cupronil, an anti-firescale and flux has effective ranges of: 1,100°–1,500°F (593°–816°C).  My thoughts:  if your flux is good until 1,700°F and the anti-firescale is effective only until 1500°F, I’d just coat the entire thing with the flux.  Now, saying that, I have not run tests of the two, side-by-side.  That will have to wait for now!
Borax/Boric Acid and denatured alcohol anti-firescale and flux have effective temperatures in similar ranges so, without actually testing each type against one another, I can’t recommend one over the other.  That said, I’d go with the My-T-Flux because it has the highest effective temperature range.
So, you can either run tests yourself or just use your flux and watch that you don’t overheat your metal.  A smaller, hotter flame can help – focused soldering – so that the entire piece doesn’t get overheated.
Another option to avoid fire scale/ fire stain is to not have a shiny finish.  Think finishes:  textures, patterns, surface treatments, patinas, etc.

Question: Does Pripps Flux work better than boric acid and denatured alcohol for preventing firescale/firestain?

“I use the boric acid denatured alcohol mix for firescale prevention on sterling. I wire brush the sliver with some dawn soap first, dry the piece, stir the boric acid mix and dip the silver. Next I heat the silver to a dull red and quench. The only time that I seem to get firescale is if I overheat the silver. I can repeat the brushing and coating if I happen to see some fire scale. My question is whether you think the Pripps flux works better for firescale? Some jewelers swear by it but I have not tried it. The Pripps flux might be easier for the students to use? “

Do you create a high polish on your finished pieces?  That is when the firescale/stain shows up.  It doesn’t always happen though.

I don’t think anyone type of preventative works any better than another – although, people can get pretty heated up in the defense of their firescale/stain preventative.  I use just plain flux and try to avoid overheating.  Anything that reduces the amount of oxide development, works.  The temperature range of the flux/dip is crucial – if pieces are heated past the max temp range, the flux/dip stops working.  Most have working ranges of up to 1800°F.  I think, that if you aren’t seeing firescale/stain, then you are doing something right and I’d keep doing whatever you are doing.  Although, you do have most of the ingredients so, you could make some up and see what you think.  Wish I could be less vague but, I haven’t found anything that I feel is superior to another – yet!

*There are other fluxes/dips that have higher ranges but, they are usually used for platinum. Also, soldering on charcoal helps because it creates a reducing atmosphere.

I don’t think the Pripps would be easier for students. Although, I haven’t tested that theory.

What is the best way to avoid firescale/stain altogether?

Use Argentium silver. Period.

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