- 1 Overview
- 2 Wire and Sheet Metal
- 3 Hallmarking
- 4 Work Hardening and Annealing
- 5 Individual Metals
- 5.1 Aluminum
- 5.2 Brass
- 5.3 Bronze
- 5.4 Copper
- 5.5 Gold
- 5.6 Mokume´Gane
- 5.7 Niobium
- 5.8 Shakudo
- 5.9 Shibuichi
- 5.10 Silver – Covering Argentium, Britannia, Fine, German, Nickel, Sterling and Thai and Other Types
- 5.11 Stainless Steel
- 5.12 Steel
- 5.13 Titanium
- 6 Resources used in research
- 7 Metal Suppliers – Sheet Metal and Wire
- 8 European/Australian/Non-USA Metal Suppliers
- 9 Related Videos
- 10 Related Webpages
Nancy LT Hamilton
Last updated: 3/16/19, 06/21/17
This page is incomplete. I’ll be adding more content as time (and body) allows!
Note: If you know of any additional US or International Metal Suppliers please, let me know!
***Please see my new spreadsheet on Annealing Temperatures of Common Jewelry Metals. There’s information on what color your metal should be when annealed. Should you quench or not? What are the melting point of my metal and other related information? Know your metal! There’s information on metals from Aluminum through Tin.
Wire and Sheet Metal
Sheet Metal and Wire are divided into two basic classifications: Ferrous and Non-ferrous. Ferrous is a metal or alloy that contains iron and is magnetic. Non-ferrous doesn’t contain iron and is NOT magnetic. Simple really. A (complete?) list of non-ferrous metals/alloys are: Copper, Brass, Bronze, Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Zinc, Nickel, Lead, Mercury, Titanium, Magnesium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt,Molybdenum, Palladium, Platinum, Rhodium, Tantalum, Tin, Tungsten, Uranium, and Vanadium. PHEW!
So, what metals do jewelers generally use? (another list, geez!) Copper, Brass, Bronze, Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Tin, Platinum, Rhodium, Nickel, Zinc and Lead. Jewelers also use Ferrous metals like steel, iron and stainless steel.
In the United States, the B&S (Brown and Sharpe) gauge is used. The British use the British Standard Wire Gauge, which is also known as, Imperial Wire Gauge or British Standard Gauge. Currently, the standard for measurement is BS (British Standard) 6722. Please see my B&S Gauge conversion chart: B&S Gauge in MM’s and Decimals. It lists sizes of a gauge in millimeters and decimal inches. There is also a recommended, corresponding drill bit size listed.
Ring & Things’: Sterling Silver: Defining Quality.
Work Hardening and Annealing
The majority of techniques that we, as jewelers, employ involve changing the shape of our metal via some form of force. Using a dapping punch, hammer or chasing and repousse tools are just a few examples of the ways, in which, we abuse our metal. This process, of altering the metal’s shape, is called Deformation. Deformation occurs when we hammer, bend, coil, cut, fold, etc. The application of stresses or a load will deform the metal. If the force is minimal, the metal may only change shape temporarily and then spring back to its original shape after the stress is removed. This type of alteration is called Elastic Deformation. Conversely, if a stronger force is applied and the metal becomes permanently deformed, the metal will be said to have plastically deformed.
The process of deformation causes work hardening or a rearrangement of the metals grains (the small crystals that constitute solid metal). Work hardening strengthens metal but, this is not always what we want. Often, we want our metal pliable so that we can alter its shape even more. Work hardening can also make our metal stiff and brittle.
To remedy the situation, annealing swoops into the rescue. With its high heat, annealing causes the atoms, in the crystalline structure of the metal, to rapidly redistribute themselves, filling voids in the crystalline lattice’s structure, as they go. The heat of annealing and the subsequent cooling, of the metal, speed up the process of redistribution. If left to happen on its own, it would take buckets of time. The actual processes and the rules that govern them are way too complex for me to explain! So, let’s just briefly summarize the entire process – skipping all mention of chemistry!!! Here goes: Work hardening -is a process where the metal gets worked and becomes stiffer and stiffer. Eventually, it can get so stiff that it cracks and fails. Annealing – the stiff, brittle metal is heated up and then cooled resulting in a piece with lovely, pliable metal grains.
You can anneal metal over and over again so, anneal away!
If you are interested in the chemical processes involved in metallurgy, please check out these sources (for a start!).
- NDT Resource Center. Linear Defects – Dislocations.
- Science Direct. Plastic Deformation.
- NDT Resource Center. Elastic/Plastic Deformation.
- Wikipedia. Annealing.
- Brittanica. Work Hardening.
Aluminum is an element and its atomic symbol is Al. Its atomic number is 13. “…it is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust.” (Wikipedia). Aluminum is a non-ferrous metal and is highly resistant to corrosion. It is considered a “reactive metal”
- To anneal Aluminum, coat with bar soap. Heat, with a torch, until the soap starts to turn black – or burns. Black crud just brass brushes off. No pickling.
- After annealing, allow to air cool.
- Melting point: 1220°F/660°C
- This information from the Alzheimer’s Association: “…During the 1960s and 1970s, aluminum emerged as a possible suspect in Alzheimer’s. This suspicion led to concern about exposure to aluminum through everyday sources such as pots and pans, beverage cans, antacids, and antiperspirants. Since then, studies have failed to confirm any role for aluminum in causing Alzheimer’s. Experts today focus on other areas of research, and few believe that everyday sources of aluminum pose any threat.”
Aluminum can be colored by, among other methods, alcohol inks (use a heat gun to set the colors and then seal with a sealer) and by a process called anodization. Here’s a YouTube video from Caswell on the process (using their kit). Anodization is a rather toxic chemical process wherein the aluminum is anodized, in a process similar to rust, the anodized film grows from the aluminum and this film is then dyed. Sulfuric acid is used in this process (FYI – battery acid is composed of 30 – 50% sulfuric acid).
Anodized Aluminum – Image from HSU Studios.com
Personally, I like the malleability of aluminum. For cuff bracelets its great because it doesn’t seem to work harden like silver and springs back into shape. It’s easy to roller print and shape. Easy to saw too. Aluminum bracelet blanks make great supports for polymer clay bracelets.
Places to buy aluminum blanks:
One method to attach polymer clay to metal blanks: Polymer Clay Etc. Blanks can also be used to just fire the clay on and then removed.
- Brass is generally yellower than bronze. NuGold (read on) is very close in color to 14k gold.
- Brass differs from bronze in that the copper is alloyed with zinc while bronze is alloyed with tin. The amounts of each metal affect the properties of the brass.
- Lead (up to 2%) can be added to increase malleability. Therefore, the jeweler should be aware of what type of brass that they are using. Lead does not absorb through the skin but, there is a danger that someone, especially a child, will put it into their mouth. See this article on Lead from Public Health for Seattle and King Counties, Washington State: Lead and its Human Effects.
- Brass has excellent acoustical properties, which is why it is used for instruments.
- Brass is more malleable than Bronze or Zinc but less malleable than silver or gold.
- 90% of all brass alloys are recycled. *1 (see resources below for source)
- Brass is considered a “base” metal.
- Brass is fairly resistant to tarnish. As a result, Liver of Sulfur doesn’t work very well on it.
- Brass is a non-ferrous metal and is not magnetic.
- The higher the copper (CU) content in Brass, the greater the malleability (softness).
- Brass with high zinc content will also be less malleable. Brass with more than 30% zinc (ZN) is rarely used in jewelry making because it is very brittle and hard and has a tendency to collapse if it is overheated.
- Commercial Brass is a good choice for the jeweler with a 90% copper to 10% zinc ratio.
- Nu-Gold is another form of brass that has a deep gold color (aka: 230 alloy). Nu-Gold is sometimes 85 – 88% copper and 15 – 12% zinc. Compare to standard brass (aka: 260 alloy), which is 68-70% copper.
- It is also known as red brass, Jeweler’s Brass, Merlin’s gold and jeweler’s bronze
- Both Commercial Brass and Nu-Gold are good for chasing and repousse´ work as well as for other constructions.
- “Copper and brass are playing a leading role in the fight against hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA and Clostridium difficile. It has been shown that these pathogens, which can be spread by touch, will die in a few hours on copper/brass surfaces. This does not happen on stainless steel or plastic.” *2 (see resources below for source).
- Zinc fumes are toxic. Don’t melt brass or bronze unless you have approved fume ventilation.
- I, personally, like the warmer color of bronze than the yellow of brass.
- Bronze was the first metal that humans alloyed. In 4,000 BC, Bronze was alloyed with arsenic but, eventually, that recipe was abandoned.
- Bronze is, at its most basic, an alloy of copper and tin. But, the alloy of just these two metals produces a brittle material. In the past, lead was added. The lead increased the brittleness and hardness but, led to an easier product for casting. Architectural bronze (57% copper, 3% lead, 40% zinc) contains lead as Historical bronzes often do. The exact alloys are usually unknown but, they were often alloyed with lead. So, know what you’re working with – for safety’s sake!
- The addition of tin to bronze increases the metal’s resistance to corrosion as well as its hardness.
- Alloys of copper and tin that contain 78% or more copper are considered bronze.
This bronze is composed of 10% zinc and 90% copper. This type of bronze is more accurately classified as a brass alloy because of the addition of zinc.
Commercial bronze is usually used for architectural applications.
Modern Bronze is usually from 3% – 25% tin, the rest is copper and other metals.
Bronze alloys expand before they set and then shrink, making them great for casting – the mold gets filled completely and then, when it shrinks, it facilitates easy removal.
- Composition: 3.5% – 10% tin, with up to 1% phosphorus, copper.
- The reason for the addition of phosphorus is to reduce the amount of oxidation generated by the copper.
- Uses: Marine use, some dental applications (bridges), springs, bolts, musical instruments (think: cymbals), bells, wind instruments, etc.
- The Bronze that Rio Grande sells contains phosphorus, copper, and tin.
Composed of 96% copper. The remaining 4% can be alloyed with silicon, tin, magnesium, iron, lead or zinc. Silicon Bronze pours well and is therefore useful for casting. Used in the aerospace industry because of the lubrication supplied by the silicon.
For Further Research
Copper is one of my favorite metals to work with. If soft (annealed), it moves “like butta”! It is inexpensive, has a higher melting point than silver and takes patinas well. It’s great for enameling, for wirework, for forming, for chasing and repousse, etc. I think copper is undervalued culturally. As a jeweler, it’s my favorite metal to work with.
- Copper is a pure metal. Its atomic number is 29 and its symbol is Cu.
Please see my webpage: About Solder for information and links regarding gold solder.
Gold and silver both have a 2 1/2 hardness rating on the Mohs scale. So both, in their pure forms, scratch, dent, and mar, at the same level.
A good, but expensive book on gold (over $200.00 US): Gold: Science and Applications, edited by Christopher Corti and Richard Holliday is available at CRC Press and Amazon. You can read excerpts of the book at Google Books.
Silver – Covering Argentium, Britannia, Fine, German, Nickel, Sterling and Thai and Other Types
Silver and gold, both, are a 2 1/2 on the Mohs scale – in their pure, non-alloyed forms.
Silver is considered a precious metal. It is an element whose chemical symbol is Ag and its atomic number is 47, for those for who need to know. BTW, the AG is taken from the Latin word for silver: Argentum. Silver has some pretty impressive credentials: it has the highest electrical and heat conductivity of any element. It appears humans have been using silver since somewhere around 3000 B.C. – a little before I was born.
All types of silver tarnish, as do other metals. Some, more so than others. Argentium Silver tarnishes the slowest, then fine silver and, lastly, sterling silver. Tarnish is a discoloring of the metal caused by the interaction of a variety of agents. I found this great explanation of tarnishing at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The article is from the V&A Conservation Journal, January 1996, Issue 18. Titled: Tarnishing of Silver, A Short Review by Masamitsu Inaba.**** (see resources below for source)
In a nutshell, or in 1/2 a grapefruit, if you wish (silly sayings), this is what it says: Tarnishing starts when a thin film of water covers the piece (tarnishing does not occur in a dry environment). In the second stage, oxygen comes in and starts consuming electrons through some sort of electrical process (PLEASE, please, don’t ask me to explain this! I don’t understand it at all!). Hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides speed up the formation of tarnish. The tarnish itself is a chemical called silver sulfide. Other agents involved in messing up our silver are nitrogen and chlorine (ever taken a hot tub with silver jewelry on?), sodium chloride (salt from our sweat) and UV radiation (light).
Ways to protect your silver jewelry from tarnish are varied but, usually involve storing them either in anti-tarnish bags or placing an anti-tarnish material in the bag or box, with the jewelry, like Anti-Tarnish strips. The world is a dangerous place for your silver! The Victoria and Albert Museum uses these products to protect their silver – although, how effective they are on jewelry is not discussed:
“Depending on the degree of corrosion, silver objects at the V&A are cleaned using a combination of:
- Goddard’s Hotel Silver Dip TM, Johnson Wax (a proprietary mix of mineral, acids, surfactant, sanitizers and organic complexing agent);
- Goddard’s Long Term Foaming Silver Polish TM, Johnson Wax (an aqueous dispersion of surfactants, jeweler’s rouge, diatomaceous earth, tarnish inhibitor, perfume, and approved preservative);
- Goddard’s Long Term Silver Cloth TM, Johnson Wax (impregnated with water, alcohol, silica, inhibitor, surfactants, thickener, dye, perfume and metal soap).” ****
Lacquers can be applied to silver to stop tarnish from forming but, they have a tendency to wear with use and then need to be reapplied. See my page on Finishing Jewelry for information of polishing cloths and other methods for polishing.
See this video by Ronda Coryell on the removal of tarnish from Argentium: Tarnish Removal for Argentium Silver on the Jewelrystudiesinternational.com site.
More information can be found in this article from Hoover and Strong’s site. Why Jewelry Sometimes Blackens the Skin, by D.E. Gardam and Dr. Alexander A. Fisher.
I just read that spraying a little Windex on a piece of yellowed Argentium, then wiping it off will clean it up quickly. See Nancy Howland’s thread at Ganoksin for her Argentium tarnish observations.
Argentium Silver is a new alloy created and patented by Peter Johnson in 1996. This article from Middlesex University London – Art and Design Research division tells the story of Argentium. Believe it or not, it is an interesting tale! Argentium is composed of 92.5% to 96%Fine Silver plus trace amounts of the metals, Germanium, and Copper. The addition of Germanium (.5 to 3%) altered the Sterling Silver mix of 92.5% Silver and 7.5% copper and created a new alloy that is VERY resistant to tarnish and is Firescale (or Firestain) free. The Germanium in Argentium (say that 10 times fast!0 produces an oxide resistant layer when heated – protecting the silver from firescale.
Germanium (Symbol: GE, atomic number 32 – you needed to know this, right?) is obtained by smelting Zinc ores combined with the byproducts of burning particular coals. It was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler, a German chemist. Germanium has the same crystal structure as Diamond and is very brittle. Today, Germanium is utilized primarily by the semiconductor industry but, it is also employed in the production of night vision products, in fiber optics and many other industries.
Per Jewelry Studies International: use Windex to remove tarnish from Argentium. Scroll to end of the post to find the entry. Post dated: January 30, 2012.
You SHOULD read these PDF’s by Cynthia Eid BEFORE working with Argentium. I learned a lot!
- Basic Guide for Working with Argentium Silver: The Essentials to Get Started Working with AS.
- Annealing Argentium Silver: Annealing and Quenching
- Fusing and Granulation with Argentium Sterling
- Soldering Argentium Silver
- Finishing and Hardening Argentium Silver
- And Furthermore…More Info About Argentium Silver
If you want more information on Argentium, please, visit the sites below:
- Ronda Coryell’s many videos on Argentium including how it’s made
- I highly recommend reading this Instruction sheet! It is a comprehensive explanation of how to work with Argentium! Working with Argentium® Silver—Tips & Procedures, by Cynthia Eid Image from ArtFire Metalsmith’s Guild, Article titled: Argentium Tips for New Users by, Marty Anderson (see the link to the article above). Comparison of the colors of Argentium and Sterling Silver (on right).
- David Federman, JCK, The Chemical Appeal of Silver of Alloy-Infused Jewelry, August 25, 2012. Discusses Argentium, Sterilite, TruSilver, and Sterlium – tarnish resistant silvers.
- Middlesex University, Department of Department of Applied Design. (Cutlery and Allied Trades Research Association). Resistance to Firestain Evaluation of Silver Alloys, October 25, 2006. Web. A study done by Middlesex University which compares various silver alloys and their resistance to firestain. Argentium won with 0!
Annealing and Soldering with Argentium
- “Argentium silver glows a paler color than traditional sterling silver at red-hot temperatures – it is recommended to carry out heating applications in a shaded area to facilitate temperature/color recognition and prevent overheating. ” * (see resources below for source)
- “Traditional sterling has a solidus melting temperature of 1475°F (802°C) and a liquidus flow point of 1650°F (899°C).
- The solidus melting point of Argentium® Silver is 1410°F (766°C); the liquidus flow point is 1610°F (877°C).
- Please Note: Solidus is the temperature at which a metal starts to melt; Liquidus is the temperature at which it is fully melted.)” ** (see resources below for source)
- Use lower temperature solders, such as: medium, easy and extra-easy or purchase Argentium solders. Since Argentium doesn’t conduct heat in the same way that silver or sterling do, the use of different solder types is less important.
- Recommended pickling solutions: Sodium Bisulphate, Weak Sparex, Phosphoric Acid, Sulphuric Acid. * (see resources below for source)
- As the Argentium will hold heat longer, it is important to wait until all redness leaves the metal before quenching.
- From the Argentium help desk: “The germanium content in Argentium changes the visual color of the alloy when it is red hot… i.e. Argentium silver glows a paler red color than traditional sterling silver when it is at annealing and soldering temperatures.”
- Oxides from soldering or annealing copper, brass or sterling, etc., can stain the Argentium. Dedicate soldering blocks/charcoal to Argentium only.
- Argentium is very fragile when it is red hot. Flat sheet metal will sag unless supported.
Other Notes on Argentium
- Argentium © silver is manufactured using only recycled silver from the refining process. (from Rhonda Coryell’s video: How Argentium is Manufactured).
- Argentium is great for fusing.
- Please read this thread at Ganoksin by Nancy M. Howland on a tarnish comparison for Argentium silver. Very interesting.
- In this thread at Ganoksin, Cynthia Eid writes of her method for fusing Argentium.
There are a few other types of tarnish resistant silver. Sterilite, Sterlium, and TruSilver are new to the metals market. Please see the individual listings for these metals.
Britannia silver is 95.84% silver with the rest, generally of copper. This type of silver became THE standard for silver objects in England. It was decreed, by an act of Parliament, in 1697 to replace sterling silver as the standard. Sterling silver was re-approved in 1720, for metalsmithing. The hallmark is 958 as set by January 1, 1999, hallmarking changes in England.
Cookson Gold has an online Technical Information Booklet (pdf). Pg. 7, top right corner talks about the difference between sterling and britannia. Because of the higher silver content, britannia is easier to work and less prone to firescale/stain. These factors make it a good choice for enameling, spinning and other techniques.
I’m looking for US suppliers of this alloy.
Another source of information on Britannia Silver here at Britannica.com.
Continuum is a silver alloy developed by Stuller. It is oxidation and tarnish resistant and its working properties are between 14k gold and sterling silver. That means that it is stronger than sterling. It is used for casting, used with dies and production. It can be spot soldered, like gold and because it is stronger than sterling is great for areas that need extra strength like bracelet clasps. It fuses well.
For further research
- Jewelry Studies International. Continuum testing.
- Stuller, Continuum Data Sheet.
- Interweave, My Silver Love Affair and the Sterling Silver Alloys: Continuum, Argentium and Sterlium Plus.
Silver Ore from Ontario, Canada. Image borrowed from: RockHorseMinerals.com.
- Fine silver is the pure state of silver. There are no other elements combined with it. It is very malleable and soft compared to sterling silver. It is great for chasing and repousse´ because of its malleable nature.
- Fine silver’s hallmark is 999.
- The melting point of silver is 1763.474°F/961.93°C. If you want to watch silver boil, you need to bring its temperature up to 4013.6°F/2212°C – but, why would you? Think about it!
- The next time that you are bored, take an ounce of silver and see how far you can stretch it out. If you end up with a wire 8000′ long, then you’ve reached the limit of its ductility and are officially crazy (and need something to do).
- Silver is harder than Gold. What does hardness mean? To explain it, I asked Wikipedia to help (and they came through!): “The hardness of a material is directly related to its incompressibility, elasticity, and resistance to change in shape.” Basically, that’s what the scratching demonstrates. So, in this case, fine silver (2 1/2 on the Moh’s scale) can scratch 24k gold (also 2 1/2 on the Moh’s test BUT, not on the Vickers Hardness Test.) but 24k gold doesn’t scratch fine silver. Sort of a competition about who’s the toughest – which would be Senora Diamond with a Moh’s Scale of Mineral Hardness rating of >10, BTW!
- Silver is not considered toxic but its salts are.
- Silver is anti-bacterial. Small amounts of silver cause the cell walls of bacteria to break down. Not a replacement for antibiotics!!!!! Oh, you knew that. Sorry.
- There are 20 billion ounces of silver, above ground compared to 9.2 billion ounces of gold.
German Silver/Nickel Silver
- German silver or Nickel Silver is a copper alloy (generally) of 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. There is no silver in it.
- Nickel silver is used as a base for plated silverware, for zippers, keys, and costume jewelry, etc.
- When working with Nickel silver, anneal often as it tends to get hard fast.
- Its working properties are similar to brass.
- Many people have allergic skin reactions to Nickel. Pieces should be clearly marked as containing nickel.
- Also known as: Alpaca, Alpacca
- Real German Silver’s (not the one also known as Nickel Silver) Millesimal fineness is 835.
Susan Lenart Kazmer of ObjectsandElements.com talks about using nickel silver in her blog: Using Nickel Silver…a Frugal Alternative to Sterling.
Made by Allura Metals Inc. This is a tarnish resistant silver. The patent was applied for in February 2004. Sterilite is a silver-colored, tarnish-resistant, corrosion-resistant alloy. The alloy is composed of 92.5-95% silver, combined with a master alloy of 24-34% zinc; 60-74% copper; 0.5-1.8% silicon; 0.0-8.0% tin, or 0.0-1.5% indium.
For further research:
- Allura Metals Inc., Sterilite De-Ox Sterling Technical Data.
- Ganoksin: Sterilite – Sterling Alloys
- David Federman, JCK Online, The Chemical Appeal of Silver Alloy-Infused Jewelry.
- Patents by Assignee Sterilite LLC
- Sterling silver is an alloy of silver and, generally, copper. The standard percentage of silver is 92.5% with copper comprising the remaining 7.5%. Its hallmark stamp is: 925. Other acceptable marks are: sterling, .925, ster, sterling silver.
- Copper adds a great deal of strength to silver. Making it considerably stronger than silver alone.
- Sterling tarnishes more quickly than fine silver.
- Solidus or melting point is 1434°F/779° C – note: since sterling is an alloy, the interactions between the metals can alter the temperatures at which they melt or flow. So, there is not one specific temperature. See this response, at MadSci Network, Why Melting Temp of Sterling Silver is Given as Range & Not Exact? by Joseph Weeks for a better explanation.
- Liquidus or flow point is 1655°F/902°C (has a range of temps., see link at Solidus).
Made by United Precious Metal Refining, Inc. Sterlium is a relatively new silver alloy. It is tarnish resistant and, like Argentium, contains germanium. It is fire scale-free (according to Stuller’s Data Sheet). According to Jewelry Studies Intl., Argentium and Sterlium are more resistant to oxidation than Continuum. They also noted that Sterlium does not fuse well – unlike Argentium and Continuum. The metal is yellower than Argentium but whiter than Continuum. (See images at Jewelry Studies International.)
For Further Research
- Jewelry Studies International, Casting Test – Argentium, Sterlium, and Continuum.
- Interweave, My Silver Love Affair and the Sterling Alloys: Continuum, Argentium and Sterlium Plus.
- Stuller: Sterlium Plus. Also, see Stuller’s Data Sheet on Sterlium Plus.
- United Precious Metal Refining, Inc., United Alloy # Sterlium Plus (Sterling Silver Grain.
Thai Silver/Bali Silver
- Silver worked in Thailand or Bali
- Millesimal fineness at either 925 or 999.
Removing Dross from Stainless Steel After Laser Cutting, a video by Glen Jones.
Resources used in research
- Argentium User Guide, Argentium Original (935) 0312.PDF from Argentium International Ltd. (Unfortunately, you have to be a paid member now, to see the PDF’s).
- The Brass World and Plater’s Guide, Vol. 3
- Copper Development Association
- Elemental Matters Website
- Ganoksin: Peter W. Rowe, Bronze Confusion
- The Jefferson Lab – It’s Elemental, The Periodic Table of Elements – The Element Germanium
- JVClegal.org. JVC: The Essential Guide to the U.S. Trade in Gold and Silver – Gold and Silver Jewelry.
- Lentech.com, Chemical Properties of Silicon
- National Bronze and Metal Website
- Rings & Things – Beads and Findings, About Sterling Silver And How to Buy Sterling Jewelry Findings & Beads – Sterling Silver: Defining Quality
- USGS – Germanium Statistics and Information
- V&A Conservation Journal, January 1996, Issue 18. Titled: Tarnishing of Silver, A Short Review by Masamitsu Inaba.
- Wikipedia.org on Aluminum
- Wikipedia.org on Anodizing
- Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia, Brass
- Working with Argentium® Silver—Tips & Procedures, by Cynthia Eid
Metal Suppliers – Sheet Metal and Wire
- Rio Grande – Silver, Sterling, Argentium, Gold, Platinum, Copper, Brass, Gold Filled (New Mexico, USA)
- Metalliferous – Silver, Copper, Brass, Bronze, Nickel Silver, Niobium, Titanium, Stainless Steel, Rich Low Brass, Iron and Steel (New York, USA)
- Reactive Metals Studio – Niobium, Titanium, Mokume gane, Shakudo, bimetals, reticulated metal. (Arizona, USA)
- Otto Frei - Silver, Copper, Nickel, Nugold, Brass, Bronze, Gold (California, USA)
- Contenti - Brass, Nugold, Nickel, Pewter only (Rhode Island, USA)
- Santa Fe Jeweler’s Supply – Sterling, 14K Gold, Red Brass, Nickel, Copper, Tin Alloy, Yellow Brass (New Mexico, USA)
- Stuller – Gold, Platinum, Silver (Louisiana, USA)
- Hoover and Strong - all karat golds, Sterling Silver, Fine Silver, Argentium Sterling Silver, 900 Plat/Iridium and 950 Plat/Ruthenium (wholesale only) (Virginia, USA)
- FDJ Tools - 14k Gold, Brass, Copper, Nickel Silver, Sterling (Florida, USA)
- C.C. Silver & Gold Inc. – Gold, Silver and Platinum (Arizona, USA)
- David H. Fell & Company – Gold, Silver, Platinum, Palladium, Iridium, alloys (California, USA)
- Halstead – Copper, Silver, Brass, Gold Filled – Wholesale (Arizona, USA)
- United Precious Metals Refining – Alloys, Casting Grains, Tubing Sheet Metal, Refining, Solder, Bullion.
Recyclers – Sonoma County
- Bataeff Salvage – Metal recyclers and sellers of “distressed merchandise” in Santa Rosa, CA. Located at: 244 Mountain View Ave., Santa Rosa, CA. Kina across from Friedman Brothers on Santa Rosa Avenue. Phone: 707- 584-8401. Hours: Monday – Saturday, 8:30 – 5:30. Closed Sunday.
- Sonoma County Waste Management Agency. Central dump location and Recycle Town: 500 Mecham Road, Petaluma, CA. Phone: (707) 795-3660. Hours: Monday – Saturday, 7 – 2:30.
European/Australian/Non-USA Metal Suppliers
- Cookson Gold – Silver, Gold, Aluminum, Platinum, Copper, Brass, Palladium
- Gould’s Jewellers – Silver
- Kernowcraft – Silver, Sterling, Brass, Bronze, Copper, Mokume, Gilding Metal, Gold – Located: Cornwell, UK
- Palmer Metals – Gold, Silver, Copper
- Rashbel – Gold, Silver, Gold Filled, Brass
- A&E Metal Merchants – Silver, Gold, Base Metals, Specialty Alloys
- AGS Metals – Gold, Silver, Platinum, and Palladium
- Habsons Jeweller’s Supply – Brass, Copper, Dix Gold (Vancouver, Canada)
- Umicore – Wholesale Gold, Silver, Platinum (Ontario, Canada)
- Pasternak Findings – Gold, Silver, Platinum (Israel)
- Bending Wire and Tubing
- Flat Square Edges on Metal
- Fusing Silver and Reticulation on Copper
- Identifying Silver Wire
- Straightening Wire
- Tapering and Drawing Wire